Friday, August 21, 2020

Writing a Blog for my second Lecture ( About consumer behaviour) Essay

Composing a Blog for my second Lecture ( About buyer conduct) - Essay Example That’s why comprehension acquaints the client to the item, making him to be calm on it. At the point when this occurs, the purchaser eithers acknowledge or dismisses the data being handled in his psyche. This resembles passing by a Burger King store and feeling abruptly ravenous. And afterward burger pictures streak at the forefront of your thoughts. Before you know it, you’re before a team taking your request. I have discovered that customer conduct likewise goes past utilization of substantial items. It additionally relies upon their utilization of administrations, encounters, thoughts and numerous others (Hoyer and MacInnis, 2010, p.6). Like the items, administrations like setting off to the specialist or taking vigorous exercise have been seen and perceived inside the consumer’s mind, and along these lines taking on with the choice of going there. The utilization of cutting edge correspondence innovative gadgets is mainstream in the ads today. It has been seen as an absolute necessity in our age. Ecological impacts are in reality many. In any case, perceiving our own assets, needs and qualities when buying an item despite everything precludes (Kardes et al, 2008, p.57; Blythe, 2008, p.19). This will assist us with picking up fulfillment in meeting our

Monday, July 13, 2020

The wooden bowl

The wooden bowl A frail old man went to live with his son, daughter-in-law, and a four-year old grandson. The old mans hands trembled, his eyesight was blurred, and his step faltered.The family ate together nightly at the dinner table. But the elderly grandfathers shaky hands and failing sight made eating rather difficult. Peas rolled off his spoon onto the floor. When he grasped the glass often milk spilled on the tablecloth.The son and daughter-in-law became irritated with the mess. We must do something about grandfather, said the son. Ive had enough of his spilled milk, noisy eating, and food on the floor. So the husband and wife set a small table in the corner. There, grandfather ate alone while the rest of the family enjoyed dinner at the dinner table. Since grandfather had broken a dish or two, his food was served in a wooden bowl. Sometimes when the family glanced in grandfathers direction, he had a tear in his eye as he ate alone. Still, the only words the couple had for him were sharp admon itions when he dropped a fork or spilled food. The four-year-old watched it all in silence. One evening before supper, the father noticed his son playing with wood scraps on the floor. He asked the child sweetly, What are you making? Just as sweetly, the boy responded, Oh, I am making the bowl for you and mama to eat. The four-year-old smiled and went back to work. The words so struck the parents that they were speechless. Then tears started to stream down their cheeks. Though no word was spoken, both knew what must be done. That evening the husband took grandfathers hand and gently led him back to the family table. For the remainder of his days he ate every meal with the family. And for some reason, neither husband nor wife seemed to care any longer when a fork was dropped, milk spilled, or the tablecloth soiled.Children are remarkably perceptive. Their eyes ever observe, their ears ever listen, and their minds ever process the messages they absorb. If they see us patiently provid e a happy home atmosphere for family members, they will imitate that attitude for the rest of their lives. The wise parent realizes that every day that building blocks are being laid for the childs future.Let us all be wise builders and role models. Take care of yourself, and those you love, today, and everyday!

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Art Commission Statement - 1333 Words

Art Commission Statement Art Statement Introduction In this paper, I will discuss the commissioning of a Ten Commandments statue for the lobby of the new Christian and Jewish Interfaith Cultural and Historical Center. The commission statement will explain how the Ten Commandments statue represents developments in past and current world events and cultural patterns in Judaism and Christianity. We will discuss the importance of the proposed location and why it is appropriate being placed at that location. This commission statement will discuss our belief of how the Ten Commandments statue reflects the Jewish and Christian concept of humanitys relationship to nature and to the world and God. It will also discuss the value of†¦show more content†¦Not only is this statue a beautiful piece of art for visitors to look upon when entering the center, but it also reminds us of the reasons Jesus Christ died on the cross for all of us no matter what our faith, age, race, or gender may be. This is invaluable to every human being. This sta tue is something any visitor to the center can appreciate and agree with. This piece of artwork can be expected to enhance both the physical and intellectual environment of the center. It will enhance the physical aspect because of the beauty of the piece and because it will inspire visitors to the center, whether Christian, Jewish, or any other religion, to remain faithful to the Commandments as given to us by Moses through God. The intellectual aspects of the piece are many. It will provoke the visitors to the center to want to learn about and discuss the Commandments, and both religions and their histories. Enhancement Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. It is the worlds largest religion with an estimated 2.1 billion adherents or about one-third of the total world population. It shares with Judaism the Hebrew Scriptures (called the Old Testament by Christians), and is sometimes called an Abrahamic religion, along with Judaism and Islam. Messianic Judaism refers to a loose religious movement, self-identified as Jewish, holding that Jesus isShow MoreRelatedArt Commission Statement 11333 Words   |  6 PagesArt Commission Statement Paper Art Commission Statement Paper Historically, the Ten Commandments have provided civilization with reason, but are more than a simple set of guidelines. The Greeks originally named the Ten Commands â€Å"Decalogue,† because of its verification to Jesus’ word. The Ten Commandments were a promise made by Jesus to the people and if followed would not be in danger of sin. The Ten Commandments hold many moral principles people hold true even today, even in theRead MoreThe European Court Of Justice Delivered A Judgment On Groupement Des Cartes Bancaires V. European Commission Essay775 Words   |  4 PagesIn September 2014, the European Court of Justice delivered a judgment on Groupement des Cartes-Bancaires v. European Commission. This case was initially decided on by the commission, and then appealed to the General Court of the European Union. When the General Court dismissed the appeal, it appealed to the European Court of Justice (ECJ). After hearing the opinion given by Advocate General N. Wa hl (AG Wahl), the ECJ made a decision to quash the General Court’s decision. The case represented theRead MoreEuropean Commission1137 Words   |  5 Pagesmember of the Directorate-General of the European Commission I have been appointed to describe to you the composition and the powers of the Commission in the European Union. In the following paragraph I will describe the body of the Commission divided in three pillars: First you have the College of the Commissioners, then the Directorate-General (DGs) and lastly the cabinets. In the Third paragraph I will briefly describe the powers of the Commission and in the last paragraph I will conclude with anRead MoreAnalysis Of The Case Rusty And Dusty Slow Movers 1208 Words   |  5 Pagesrecession. Moreover, when the inventory sells, it is sold at a significant discount. Penny discussed the matter with Art, the Company President. Art told her that he believed that many of these items are sellable given appropriate marketing an d the right economic conditions. He does not want to write-down the inventory because he is concerned it will negatively impact the profit. Art has indicated that she should help falsify records if it looks like auditors could discover the slow moving inventoryRead More Auguste Rodin Essay899 Words   |  4 Pagesdispute the statement that Rodin was the greatest genius in the world of sculpture in the late 19th century. There were very few artists who faced the criticism; slander and personal insults during their lifetimes as was given to Rodin likewise there are few artists who have known such personal glory during their carriers. Rodins sculpture was so powerful and original that those in control of the art world did not understand him in his day. He was refused admittance into the Ecole des Beaux-Arts threeRead MoreThe, The Sassy Best Friend Essay1163 Words   |  5 Pageslaugh, they have an identity but they are more than their sexuality, gender, etc. etc... So producers, writers, take note: it’s far past time to throw out the whole MÄ ori/Savage paradigm. Racists. Life imitates art. If we consider Shortland Street and 3news as art, then this statement can provide an answer to the question â€Å"Why does positive MÄ ori representation even matter?†. Media does not exist in a cultural vacuum. It is the essence of the thoughts and attitudes of the mainstream. TheRead MoreChallenging Society Through Art.1073 Words   |  5 PagesChallenging Society Through Art Art makes a statement, it is as simple as that. The most preferred type of art emotes happiness to the viewer throughout all of history. Yet, throughout the years, artists have come to challenge society’s preference of art. Artists like Gustave Courbet, Francisco Goya, and Ai Weiwei, who decided to take the challenge and start a new progression. Social critique through art is blatantly shown throughout each of their pieces: Stonebreakers, The Third of May 1808, andRead MoreAnalysis Of Vasari s Work, Reflection And European Society903 Words   |  4 PagesLife of Leonardo Da Vinci: Painting and Sculptor of Florence is a monocle that gives us a gleam of how the artist contributed in the art and the intellectual thinking of humanism in a flourish social period of the European society. Modern art historian often cited Leonardo Da Vinci as a Renaissance Man. The reason for that is because Da Vinci not only exceed in the art such as painting or sculpturing, but also having great success in architecture and scientific invention. In Life of Leonardo Da Vinci:Read More Using the Internet as a Medium for Art Essay examples1559 Words   |  7 PagesUsing the Internet as a Medium for Art â€Å" This is my space, this is my world. I can express how I feel and what I believe, it’s a different type of freedom.†(1) This quote could speak of so many places in a creative world; a university, a gallery, a bedroom, a studio, and so many others that people commonly associate with artistic space however it refers to none of these and all of these at once. I am talking about the web. The web is a new space and like all technology pushed to its limitsRead MorePurpose of Higher Education1129 Words   |  5 Pagesfulfillment of one’s potential, to carry and sustain the nation atop of the worldwide economy. After World War II, the nation focused on the promotion of democracy throughout the world. In 1946, President Harry Truman mandated a commission on higher education. The first federal commission on higher education in US history, submitted a report a year later and argued two fundamentals for higher education: equal opportunity and to educate the citizens. Philo Hutcheson (2011), an Associate Professor of Educational

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Constructivist Learning Theory And Nursing Practice

Introduction As the demand for nursing education grows and with the rapidly advancing roles of nursing, educators need to stay up-to-date. â€Å"Theory-based practice provides nurses with a perspective† (Parker, 2006, p.28). With the comprehension and use of educational theories, nursing educators can support student knowledge and development into practice. These theories are outlines of cohesive concepts and principals that describe, explain, or predict how people learn. Every one learns differently and as an educator you need to be familiarized with and open to the use of one or more combinations of theories to successfully teach adult learners in this ever changing health care system. This paper will highlight the use of Constructivist Learning Theory and its application to nursing practice. Constructivist Learning Theory- Constructivism Constructivist Learning Theory exists under the focus of cognitive learning and has substructures of the concepts of self- efficacy, self- regulation, and metacognition as it defines how adults learn (Billings Halstead, 2012, p. 211). Billings Halstead (2012) explains that learning is considered a transformation in a person from personal experience. It is a continued process that encompasses understanding, clarifying, and applying meanings of knowledge that is developed. The learning theory, constructivism embraces that learning is a development. A learner constructs new knowledge by building on existing information through a processShow MoreRelatedConstructivism : A Cognitive Learning Theory1151 Words   |  5 Pages Constructivism: A Cognitive Learning Theory Erica Johnson Lourdes University â€Æ' Constructivism: A Cognitive Learning Theory According to Kivunja (2014), â€Å"a learning paradigm is a conceptual model that represents understanding of relationships involved in the learning process† (p.82). Cognitive learning theories were developed from the work of Gestalt psychologists during the early 1900’s (Billings Halstead, 2012). According to Billings Halstead (2012), â€Å"Gestalt psychologists believe peopleRead MoreIn support of the constructivist theory of education for future athletic trainers1010 Words   |  5 Pagesbehaviorist to constructivist and everything in between, the one thing they have in common is that they attempt to explain how people learn. This paper will explain why I tend to lean toward the constructivist theory of education and defend this theory using a variety of current literature. It is important to note that the theories that are talked about as educational theories are often looked at as both theories of teaching and learning; however most of these theories are not theories of teachingRead MoreThe Use Of Simulation As A Method Of Effectively Transfer Learning Into Competencies, Building Teamwork And Basic Organizational Skills923 Words   |  4 PagesThis study validated the use of simulation as a method of effectively transfer learning into competencies, building teamwork and basic organizational skills. Limitations to this study is the small sample size, evaluation tool, and no evaluation of participants experiences of past simulation exposure. The literature review stated that the use of up to fifty percent as a clinical experience had no impact on NCLEX-RN past rates. Therefore this study could be used by educators as evidence for futureRead MoreThe Impact Of Transformative And Social Constructive Learning Theories Impacted Adult Learning Outcomes3651 Words   |  15 PagesNursing education is designed to offer students the opportunity to become practitioners who are able to connect theories into practice in ways that result in qualit y patient care. Consequently, Nurse Educators are faced with the challenge of preparing students for the role of the graduate nurse, including not only the theoretical foundations of practice but the technical skills and performance behaviors necessary for their role in caring for patients with complex needs (Klein, 2006). Moreover, educatorsRead MoreCurriculum Development for the Nursing Profession Essay1515 Words   |  7 Pagesobjectives to guide the learning process of the advancing R.Ns include the following (GU, n.d): i. Engage in collaboration and communication with other health care team members. ii. Demonstrate commitment to human service as part of professional practice in a society that is culturally diverse. iii. Evaluate, communicate, and apply research findings with an aim of improving professional practice. iv. Evaluate and analyze management and leadership theories within the nursing practice. Some of the strategiesRead MoreWound Care: Sterile Dressing Changes Essay1121 Words   |  5 Pagesstudent will identify all the supplies needed to change a sterile dressing. 2. Following a small group session, the student will be able to recognize the eight signs of when a sterile dressing needs to be changed or reinforced. These two behavioral learning objectives both fall within the cognitive domain. The first is at the knowledge level, while the second falls on the comprehension level (Bastable Doody, 2007). The knowledge level assesses the ability of the student to recall information thatRead MoreTeaching Methods Academic Achievement And Influence Attitudes911 Words   |  4 Pagesquest to learn: The effects of a WebQuest on student learning in fourth grade social studies. Action Research Exchange, 5(2). Retrieved from: Brucklacher, B., Gimbert, B. (1999). Role-playing software and Web-Quests: What’s possible with cooperative learning and computers. Computers in the Schools, 15, 37-48. Castronova, J. (2002). Discovery learning for the 21st century: Article manuscript. Action ResearchRead MoreMethods Critique And Comparison : Enhancing Caregiver Outcomes Of Palliative Care, By Mccorkle And Pasacreta1665 Words   |  7 Pagesa chronically ill patient and, second, intervene with a nursing care plan designed to prepare the caregiver for the consequences of those experiences. The statement of purpose is, Families are increasingly replacing skilled health care workers in the delivery of unfamiliar complex care to their relatives with cancer, despite other obligations and responsibilities that characterize their lives (McCorkle Pasacreta, 2001). What this theory identified was the health care paradigm for a cancer patientRead More My Philosophy Of Education Essay7393 Words   |  30 Pagesbelieve that learning is a fluid activity and therefore changes constantly within the classroom community. I believe that we all are constructs of our past experiences and that these experiences influence the way we perform in our lives. The education of students cannot be dependent on a particular style of teaching or learning because we are all different. Students are diverse learners and process learning in a variety of different ways. Reaching these students with one learning style, I believeRead MoreHow to Make a Review of Related Literature6112 Words   |  25 Pageselaborately, take the following steps: Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature; Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc. Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing. How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature When writing the Body, do the following: Group the sources according to their common

Role Of Health Care Organizations Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(209) " in progress and prior to the launching of the plan and out of all these outstanding characteristics it is most of import to happen out a valid ground which can legalize and warrant the demand of such a plan\." Health Care Organizations. The function of wellness attention organisations is really of import in the overall wellness scenario of United States. Health attention organisations are dedicated to supply comprehensive wellness services to the patients. We will write a custom essay sample on Role Of Health Care Organizations Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now These wellness attention organisations provide the services of doctors, nurses, research labs etc. for the patient. However, it has been forecasted by many economic analysts that the wellness disbursals in United States will see a uninterrupted rush due to the deteriorating economic conditions and the increasing figure of uninsured people. This has compelled the infirmaries and other health care supplying units to restrict their disbursals to such an extent that every citizen, conditions holding medical insurance or non, will hold the entree to quality health care. The restrain of disbursals besides affects the staffing of infirmaries and most of the infirmaries follow the scheme of understaffing of their paramedical staff ( Aiken et al. , 2002 ; Unruh, 2003 ) . The authorities of United States in order to supply greater alleviation and convenience to little concerns in the state is hungering programs and explicating policies to supply them wellness insurances which will cover up to 35 % of a company ‘s insurance premiums. With the offering of insurance increasing up to 59 % this twelvemonth the White House anticipates that over 4 million people will be able to take advantage of this agreeableness. Furthermore the authorities intends to supply full revenue enhancement recognition will be provided to employers who have work force of less than 10 employees who earn less than $ 25,000 per annum. In add-on to this the disposal is besides looking frontward towards the retainment of grandfathered wellness insurance programs as it will supply employers the unsusceptibility from certain cardinal outgos. However on the impudent side little business communities and National Federation of Independent Business has already created an confederation to oppose and turn over the jurisprudence which they claim does non supply them equal alleviation and convenience. Most of them say that the eligibility standards outlined by the authorities is so narrow that many employees will merely be barred from these insurance commissariats. Many people have started traveling towards cheaper insurance programs through which their monthly insurance premium payments will cut down. Already 20 provinces have joined custodies to oppose the jurisprudence that the Obama disposal intends to proclaim. Experts besides suggest that preparation of such Torahs will work adversely for the Democrats in the approaching midterm elections as it provides a comprehendible manifestation of their incompetency and indifference towards an built-in sector of the state. Forces of alteration in US Health attention system The wellness attention state of affairs of United States of America is altering at a rapid gait. Several tendencies combined over the last few decennaries to make greater wellness attention unfairnesss. Both Medicaid and Medicare, for illustration, contributed to aggressively lifting medical costs because they required province authoritiess to reimburse infirmaries and doctors at ‘reasonable ‘ degrees determined by wellness attention suppliers. Predictably, reimbursement was really generous and disbursals grew rapidly. Such skyrocketing medical costs, combined with the general lethargy of the economic system put wellness attention out of range for many Americans. The loss of 1000000s of occupations during the recent economic meltdown added to the turning figure of people without medical insurance. The staying occupations ‘ progressively nonunion, portion clip places in the services sector ‘ offered few, if any wellness benefits. The promotion and invention of engineering in the field of medical scientific discipline has confirmed huge blessings on world. New medical specialties emerged mundane to extenuate a figure of diseases. Pharmaceutical and biomedical companies work indefatigably to develop medical specialties for such diseases, which considered as incurable in the past like Cancer ( Vastag, 1998 ) . United States is one of the most medically advanced states of the universe. Anybody who can afford or hold the proper health care coverage has entree to the best available medical engineering ( Bodenheimer, 2006 ) . Translating new engineering into pattern resulted greater per capita health care outgo ( Bodenheimer, 2005 ) . Thus engineering and invention in the medical field is an of import ground for wellness attention outgo ( Cutler A ; McClellan, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to the US Bureau of the Census, the fastest turning section of the population in 1990 was grownups and seniors. In the twelvemonth 2000, 36 per centum of the population of the United States was over 45 old ages old, as compared to 30.8 per centum in this class in 1980. Alternatively of being youth-oriented in the hereafter, the United States will go a senior orientated civilization. Health disbursals of a individual increases as his or her age additions. However, experts believe that the factor of aging population contributes really small in the addition of wellness attention outgo ( Orszag, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to the informations provided by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) , in the twelvemonth 2003 United States spends about 7.3 per centum of its entire wellness attention outgo on administrative and insurance costs as compared to Canada which spends merely 2.6 % on administrative and insurance costs ( Schoen A ; How, 2003 ) . Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ( CMS ) have besides performed some surveies which show that United States administrative cost for wellness insurance was 14.3 % of its entire wellness attention outgo in 2005 ( Centers for Medicare A ; Medicaid Services, 2005 ) . Although the alteration of US healthcare scene is non confined to these factors merely but they are some of the major subscribers for the continuously altering healthcare scene. Need for Health and Well Program The first inquiry that pops in head before planing a wellness and health plan for a private corporation is to understand the necessity due to which such a plan is being incepted. By inventing the demand and grounds for the plan any corporation can measure the full issue in greater item and penetration. Furthermore different complications that can be encountered during the class of the full plan can be analyzed in progress and prior to the launching of the plan and out of all these outstanding characteristics it is most of import to happen out a valid ground which can legalize and warrant the demand of such a plan. You read "Role Of Health Care Organizations Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" There are really two dimensions through which we can happen a rational account for such wellness and health plans. The grounds can be biological every bit good as accommodate commercial involvements. Biological grounds include the inauspicious effects of work overload on employee wellness which has become a prima cause of decease for people who develop marks and symptoms of diseases like malignant neoplastic disease, bosom onslaught and shot. Due to work emphasis and huge burden many employees in their several corporations besides develop the wont of smoke. Harmonizing to statistics that were published in 2004 edition of American Medical Journal it was estimated that smoking in the twelvemonth 2000 killed over 435,000 which surged from 400,000 in the twelvemonth 1990. Most of the victims of smoking included people from different corporations who engaged in this harmful and deadly wont due to the work load that they encountered in their corporations. Another really major ground which farther aggravated the demand of wellness plans from organisations included the increasing rate of fleshiness threat. One of the grounds that were held accountable for fleshiness included deficiency of physical activity and vigorous exercising since most of the clip in organisations is spend in forepart of computing machines either making office work or playing video games on computing machine systems. ( Nichols, 2007 ) In add-on to this the quickly progressively and booming concern of fast nutrient ironss through which people can easy buy and entree nutrient has besides proved as an effectual barrier in lending any benefit to their already anaemic province of wellness. It is a clearly understood that a squad of people who is excessively careworn and fatigued to transport his or her ain weight can non perchance afford or manage the duties and load of the work that his or her corporation provides him with and the progressively competitory environment of modern-day corporate industry does non let any topographic point to employees who can non get the better of their weariness or fleshiness syndrome. This really ground links itself to the fact where organisations in the aftermath of researching their corporate societal duties launch plans that cater to the wellness and health of their employees under organisational conditions. Organizations and different corporations in the thick of detecting a new component of marketing through the CSR factor provided their employees with the inducement of originating wellness and health plans for them through which they were successfully able to heighten their degree of trust and repute among their employees and besides boosted their public dealingss by supplying a wholly new run in order to elate their image in forepart of people. Hence the corporate involvements of employees every bit good as of employers led to the origin of the wellness and health plans at an organisational degree. ( Health and Wellness, 2010 ) Current jobs and fiscal defects in the US wellness system United States Health attention plan helps the older and the hapless citizens of the United States. The authorities of United States spends about Eighteen per centum of its GDP in its Healthcare plan, which is highest as compared to the Health attention Systems of other states ( Danzon ) . It is besides to be noted that United States is the lone state, among the developed states, which have about 15 percent population without any medical coverage. Other developed states, on norm, spend 9 per centum of their GDP on wellness attention ( OECD, 2006 ) . Switzerland is at 2nd topographic point in wellness attention disbursement which is $ 4177 per individual. Other industrialised states are non passing more than $ 3200 per individual Unlike other postwar industrialized states, the United States has moved really easy toward comprehensive wellness attention for all citizens. In 1965, Congress established the Medicare plan to function the aged and handicapped, and Medicaid to assist the hapless and institutionalised. For the most portion, nevertheless, United States health care plan has dependent on nongovernmental plans. Peoples have had to happen their ain, private beginning of wellness attention. While this system suit our free-market economic theoretical account and has provided the universe ‘s finest medical intervention to insured patients, it has besides meant that a big figure of Americans have had hapless entree to wellness attention. Although United States is one of the states, which spends batch of money in health care but ‘the consequences are non evident either in Americans ‘ satisfaction with their wellness attention system or in their wellness. Consequences are unsatisfactory in infant endurance, the length and quality of life, and entree to wellness attention, peculiarly for hapless people, and communities of colour. The United States has met merely about 15 per centum of the aims set by Healthy People 2000. While advancement has been made toward the aims in another 44 per centum, Americans ‘ wellness has really deteriorated for approximately 20 per centum of the aims ( e.g. , fleshiness, physical activity, coffin nail usage among striplings ) ‘ ( NCHS 1997, p. 2 ) . United States has experienced steady addition in the wellness attention costs for the last 2 to 3 decennaries. In the decennary of 1980s, US expenditure on wellness attention was $ 253 billion which has increased to $ 714 billion in the decennary of 1990s. Soon, US health care outgo is more than $ 2.7 trillion ( Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2010 ) . US spend about $ 7, 681 per occupant which is about 18 per centum of the entire Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) of the state. It is expected that by the twelvemonth 2015 US wellness attention disbursement will make $ 4 trillion and sum to 20 % of the entire GDP The statistics have proved that 60 to 70 per centum of the entire wellness attention outgo of United States is consumed by the 10 per centum of the population. This 10 per centum of population which generates most wellness attention costs are either suffered from chronic disease, disabled or hapless. The undermentioned figure shows the five costliest wellness conditions that cost United States most out of pocket costs. Actually talking, United States does non supply a coherent patient-centered attention for the above mentioned minority group which is one the factors of overall addition in the wellness attention outgo ( Ayanian et. al. , 2000 ) . Harmonizing to the Institute of Medicine, the quality of attention is â€Å" the grade to which wellness services for persons and populations increase the likeliness of coveted wellness results and are consistent with current professional cognition ‘ ( Institute of Medicine, 1990 ) . But at the same clip this plan is besides blamed, ‘for the bounds of its range in supplying wellness insurance to the hapless, its ties to the public assistance system and image jobs, its fluctuations across States, and the financial loads imposed on Federal and State budgets as the plan has grown in range and disbursement ‘ ( Rowland, 1995 ; pg. 272 ) . United States wellness attention system, being a immense system, has besides established inefficiency which proves to be a barrier to the invention of this $ 2.7 trillion industry. This inefficiency, despite all the mechanization and technological inventions, consequences the loss of $ 300 billion, i.e. 15 cents per dollar spent on wellness attention The figure of uninsured is continuously lifting due to several factors. These uninsured people are really likely to populate without proper wellness coverage because of the turning load of wellness attention ( Institute of Medicine, 2002 ) . As consumers are fighting to get by with the mounting out-of-pocket liabilities, the suppliers are seeking to better their falling grosss by revamping their concern processes to diminish the turning bad debt and to better pull off the payments from the consumers. A common perceptual experience is that consumers are unwilling to pay for their wellness attention outgo. However, the study, conducted by McKinsey quarterly, suggested that consumers are normally willing to pay but the charge system inefficiencies, deficiency of funding options and consumer ‘s confusion are the chief grounds of non ‘ payment ( Finn, Pellathy and Singhal, 2009 ) . It is pertinent to province the position of Healthcare Financial Management Association, ‘ In many ways, the state ‘s current health care payment system blocks, instead than supports, the state ‘s wellness ends: The system does non efficaciously reward health or high quality. The system does non promote social benefit such as entree to care. And the system creates fiscal instability by adding cost and complexness to wellness disposal, by honoring high-cost patterns, and by concentrating on expensive sickness-focused intercessions instead than health. ‘ ( Healthcare Financial Management Association, 2008 ) . Stakeholders in Health attention organisation The uninterrupted alterations in the health care field have wholly changed the position of infirmaries and wellness attention organisations and they are now acted more like a concern venture than a societal service organisation ( Shortell, Morrison A ; Robbins, 1985 ) . This new altering environment has compelled the disposal of wellness attention organisation to take all the concerns of the stakeholders earnestly and now stakeholders are act uponing the personal businesss of wellness attention organizations whether it belong to disposal, fiscal or quality attention issues ( Blair A ; Fottler, 1990 ) . Although the stakeholders are the same for both non-profit-making and for net income wellness organisations ; however, their power and influence is different depending on the construction of the wellness attention organisation ( Kralewski, Gifford A ; Porter, 1988 ) . Although there are legion groups of stakeholders, but harmonizing to a survey ( Fottler et al. , 1989 ) , the underm entioned five are the most influential and powerful. 1. Medical Staff 2. Patients 3. Hospital Management 4. Professional Staff 5. Board of Trustees The penchants of all these stakeholders are different. Medical and Professional staff stress more on quality of wellness attention provided to the patients. Patients are besides concerned about the service and clinical quality but cost of the quality wellness attention is besides one of their major concerns. Hospital direction focuses on the leading, profitableness and cost containment of health care services. Board of legal guardians who have the reins of control of overall infirmary direction attention largely for the profitableness, regular watercourse of hard currency flow and effectual and efficient use of resources. The disposal and executives of wellness attention organisations normally formulate attempt to explicate a scheme which satisfy all the stakeholders because they have overlapping ends and involvements ( Counte, 1995 ) . Recommendation for how best wellness attention could be delivered 1. Determine the gross beginnings available for subsidising the wellness attention coverage farther with a end to cover all the Americans in wellness attention insurance cyberspace ; as all the above treatment show there are 1000000s of uninsured people in America which prove to be an tremendous load on the economic system of United States. There is a demand to cover as many people as possible under wellness attention insurance by mobilising the bing gross beginnings every bit good as by making new resources like taxing baccy, cresting the revenue enhancement exclusion of employer based wellness insurance etc. 2. Create, in order to pool hazards, insurances exchanges at province or regional footing. Such exchanges will be good for those Americans besides who do non take part in employer-based or other group insurance installations. 3. Establish a board with representation of all the stakeholders of wellness attention system. This board determines and updates the wellness attention benefit bundle of United States citizens through province or regional degree insurance exchanges. Challenges for infirmaries It has been estimated that mean cost of a trial is within the scope of $ 200 to $ 400, accompanied with the medical charges of the concerned physician which are $ 10 to $ 15 and if the status is much serious, which is a usual instance with chronic infections, the cost is above $ 300. It has been forecasted by many economic analysts that the wellness disbursals in United States will see a uninterrupted rush due to the deteriorating economic conditions which has sidelined companies to supply any sort of medical benefit to their employees, authorities institutional wellness reform programs is non deadening any fruit and private sector seems excessively intimidated to assure anything that in the long tally erodes its credibleness. Furthermore, the load of the 47 million uninsured people of the state is being sustained on the disbursal of the 253.4 million people that have medical insurance as disclosed by the statistics released by Census Bureau. Harmonizing to analysts the misdirection and the huge pandemonium occupying the wellness sector in the United States is chiefly an result of unprofessional behavior and a manifestation of utmost carelessness in the allotment of fiscal resources which has resulted in an instability between the end product and input being generated by the sector. At present the end product easy surpasses the input and if concrete stairss are non taken to decide the job, the ensuing effects will be badly inauspicious and irrevokable. Clinical attention of patients are become more and more ambitious with the transition of clip. At the same clip infirmaries face troubles in supplying quality wellness attention service in present economic status. In the twelvemonth 2000, harmonizing to American Hospital Association, 1 out of 3 infirmaries showed losingss, 58 % have negative borders on Medicare patients and 73 % reported loss in handling Medicaid patients ( American Hospital Association, 2002 ) . Doctor ‘s Organization Like others in concern, doctors must vie for paying patients. Doctors are no longer in short supply, except in urban slums and remote rural countries, and find themselves in a purchaser ‘s market. Besides they frequently enter pattern with medical school debts of 100s of 1000s of dollars. All this force per unit area conflicts with the doctor ‘s professional moralss to urge medical service to patients without seeking to maximum fees. Agreements with makers of medical merchandises and drugs may honor doctors for ordering or urging merchandises that are more expensive. Doctors might direct patient to wellness attention installations, such as research labs, convalescent places, in which they are fiscal involvement. The function and duty of doctor ‘s organisation is to set up, ‘Performance measures’if done right’have possible to measure physician public presentation, better the quality of patient attention, heighten the coordination and direction of attention, and reward doctors who meet or exceed the benchmarks set by public presentation steps. However, if applied in a bureaucratic, arbitrary, or punitory mode, public presentation measuring can impede quality and injury patient attention, undermine the physician’patient relationship, and cause physician defeat and calling dissatisfaction ‘ ( ACF, 2004 ) . In the new system, payments should depend on the efficient bringing of quality wellness attention services which leads towards the betterment of the overall status of the patients. Role of Nursing Organization Nurses provide attention, non merely for physical unwellness, but besides for emotional, mental, societal and religious jobs to guarantee the complete healing of the patient ( Donabedian, 1988 ) . In the last century nursing has made a phenomenal accomplishment that it has led to the acknowledgment of nursing as a profession and a separate educational subject. Contemporary nursing is now more meaningful and important because of theory-based pattern which shifted nursing ‘s focal point from career to an organized profession. It was research and theory together which produced nursing scientific discipline. Nursing theory fundamentally suggests that nursing should be given professional instruction during which they will analyze a aggregation of interrelated topics which will be applied in their pattern. The cognition may be derived from experimental acquisition or formal beginnings such as nursing beginnings or nursing research. Nursing is a scientific discipline affecting many pe ople environment and procedure in the context of health care. It is the duty of nursing organisation to guarantee that all wellness attention organisations may hold a sufficient PTN ratio. Overburdened nurses increase the chance of foetal mistake happening and diminish the labour cost economy. Statisticss revealed that traveling from 6:1 to 7:1 costs 1.4 extra lives lost per 1000 admittances. There are 38 million infirmary admittances per twelvemonth in the United States ( Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2002 ) , therefore, little addition in PTN ratio, i.e. 7:1 to 6:1, may ensue in significant figure of lives saved. Improvement in Clinical Support Services The American wellness attention system provides first-class intervention for insured patients, but many people have hapless entree to the system, and unfairnesss have late increased due to many factors. The free market attack is seemly non an attack that could be used in a wellness attention system when there is non the engagement of all parties, such as those that are uninsured. It has been reported that the 47 million uninsured Americans without wellness insurance are mostly borne by those with insurance. The undermentioned betterments are recommended in clinical support services: ‘ Rewards the invention in efficient bringing of wellness attention ‘ Establish a well-and firmly funded entity which continuously perform research on efficiency and effectivity of drugs, wellness attention devices, diagnosing and procedures and processs of wellness attention ‘ Federal and State Torahs must be made more consistent and rational ‘ Establish Information Technology substructure in wellness attention in order to ease informations exchange ‘ Create a National wellness attention database which will be available to all the stakeholders and research workers Social and Economic footing for the growing of the Uninsured in America Several tendencies combined over the last few decennaries to make greater wellness attention unfairnesss. Both Medicaid and Medicare, for illustration, contributed to aggressively lifting medical costs because they required province authoritiess to reimburse infirmaries and doctors at ‘reasonable ‘ degrees determined by wellness attention suppliers. Predictably, reimbursement was really generous and disbursals grew rapidly. Such skyrocketing medical costs, combined with the general lethargy of the economic system put wellness attention out of range for many Americans. The loss of 1000000s of occupations during the recent economic meltdown added to the turning figure of people without medical insurance. The staying occupations ‘ progressively nonunion, portion clip places in the services sector ‘ offered few, if any wellness benefits. The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) epidemic put an added load on the US wellness attention system. The disease claimed over 80, 000 lives up to 1990. Many of these patients are unemployed, and lack medical insurance, and have unmet demands beyond wellness attention, including guidance services, lodging, and transit. As the disease spreads, the costs of research, intervention, and lost productiveness add up to one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth. For these grounds force per unit area grew for wellness attention reforms in United States. Harmonizing to a study of Institute of Medicine, the future wellness policy must place further the of import maps of the policy, i.e. service, policy development and appraisal. These would besides better the overall quality of different state-owned undertakings. A panel from the platform of Institute of Medicine gave the undermentioned recommendations: ‘that every populace wellness bureau on a regular basis and consistently roll up, assemble, analyze, and do available information on the wellness of the community, including statistics on wellness position, community wellness demands, and epidemiological and other surveies of wellness jobs†¦ ‘ ‘That the public wellness responsibilities of provinces should include†¦ appraisal of demands in the province based on informations aggregation ; confidence of an equal statutory base for wellness activities ; †¦ constitution of statewide wellness aims ; †¦ confidence of appropriate organized statewide attempt to develop and keep indispensable†¦ wellness services†¦ ‘ ( Institute of Medicine, 1988 ) . Reasons for addition in wellness attention costs The steady addition of healthcare outgo coupled with the present planetary economic meltdown and lifting federal shortage makes it really dashing undertaking for United States to finance the wellness attention outgo either through private employers wellness insurance coverage or through public plans like Medicare and Medicaid. This has besides compelled the wellness insurance companies to increase their wellness insurance premium rate. Now the household premium of employer-sponsored wellness insurance has increased by 131 per centum since 1999 ( Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, 2009 ) . Public plans like Medicare and Medicaid portion a major ball of entire wellness attention outgo duty but they failed to increase their per capita disbursement with the same gait as private insurance companies do, i.e. 6.8 against 7.1 per centum between the period 1998 to 2008 ( Altman, Levitt and Claxton, 2010 ) . Invention and Technology The promotion and invention of engineering in the field of medical scientific discipline has confirmed huge blessings on world. It draws the line between the old epoch and the modern epoch of brightness, between human retardation and advancement, between the life of wretchednesss and the era of felicity and cognition, between work forces ‘s foolish beliefs and scientific enquiry and research. The present epoch is the period of rapid alteration and inventions. New medical specialties emerged mundane to extenuate a figure of diseases. These medical specialties cut down the opportunities of coronary arteria disease, coronary artery disease, and bosom onslaught etc. Pharmaceutical and biomedical companies work indefatigably to develop medical specialties for such diseases, which considered as incurable in the past like Cancer ( Vastag, 1998 ) . Biomedical companies besides working on different vaccinums to extinguish diseases like Hepatitis C, which leads to chronic infections and liver failures ( Stratton et al. , 1999 ) . Similarly Curative vaccinum is best for forestalling malignant neoplastic diseases in general and vaccinum for villoma virus is supposed to forestall malignant neoplastic diseases of neck in peculiar. Aging Harmonizing to the US Bureau of the Census, the fastest turning section of the population in 1990 was grownups and seniors. In the twelvemonth 2000, 36 per centum of the population of the United States was over 45 old ages old, as compared to 30.8 per centum in this class in 1980. Alternatively of being youth-oriented in the hereafter, the United States will go a senior orientated civilization ( Way, 2000 ) . It has been estimated that merely 50 % of the citizens under the age bracket of 55 to 64 old ages are in work in developing states as compared to 75 % of 25 to 54 old ages old and this per centum shrinks further in EU states, i.e. merely 39 % . It is besides estimated that aging population of United States will turn about 80 per centum during the period of 2000 to 2025 ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 ) . Health disbursals of a individual increases as his or her age additions. However, experts believe that the factor of aging population contributes really small in the addition of wellness attention outgo ( Orszag, 2008 ) . Decision Peoples cope with life ‘s uncertainnesss, particularly mortality and disease, utilizing medical specialty. Medical scientific discipline uses non a sacred but a profane attack covering with the ordinary, platitude and layman. The hapless suffer more wellness jobs than the remainder of the society as a consequence of low quality wellness attention, more life emphasiss, and fewer get bying resources. Functionalists claim that the wellness attention establishment helps keep a strong work force, but conflict theoreticians argue that it has historically shifted the incrimination for sick wellness from the environment to the laden hapless and through medicalization has extended its control over of all time more parts of society. Even today, medical scientific discipline focal points on the person ‘s duties for illness instead than societal causes. The capitalist system causes the wellness jobs, but uses the medical establishments to get away incrimination and even net income from them. Suggested options include more authorities intercession and greater consumer instruction. The American wellness attention system provides first-class intervention for insured patients, but many people have hapless entree to the system, and unfairnesss have late increased due to many factors. This has promoted calls for reforms, including free, cosmopolitan wellness attention which most other modern states offer to their citizens. Many of these states, nevertheless, have retreated from socialized medical specialty because of lifting cost and increasing consumer demands. The free market attack is seemly non an attack that could be used in a wellness attention system when there is non the engagement of all parties, such as those that are uninsured. It has been reported that the 47 million uninsured Americans without wellness insurance are mostly borne by those with insurance. There is a measure of 2.7 trillion yearly for the cost of attention on United States economic system to care for the uninsured and about three 4th of this is paid by the Federal, State and local authoritiess through a assortment of destitute attention payments. The extra disbursals is push away on to the private sector. There are 299 million people in the United States in 2007 and out of that sum there is about 253.4 million that have wellness insurance ( Cover, 2009 ) . The huge bulk of those 202 million had private wellness insurance, harmonizing to the Census Bureau and those Numberss double as of 2009. Numerous factors combined together to make unfairnesss in United States wellness attention system. State and Federal authorities have to reimburse the wellness attention disbursals of people through Medicare, Medicaid and other authorities sponsored plans liberally which grew at a rapid gait due to the crisp addition in wellness attention cost. The present glooming economic status of United States, loss of 1000000s of occupations increased the figure of uninsured people and added more load on the already bowed down shoulders of US Government. In such a state of affairs, it seems instead, farfetched that US authorities will go on to bear wellness attention disbursal of the uninsured and underinsured people. The continuously increasing fiscal liability of supplying wellness attention services to the uninsured proved to be a hinderance which does non let the system to work decently and an hindrance to supply the wellness attention benefit to the meriting portion of the society. How to cite Role Of Health Care Organizations Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The factors affecting tensile strength Essay Example

The factors affecting tensile strength Paper I am comparing four sets of data. My data will be categorical. There is a simple statistical test which looks at the difference between observed and expected values and relates them to a probability level, thus making it possible to identify how likely it is that the values are significantly different. This test is called the Chi squared test. Precautions to ensure reliability   We are assuming ethnic background does not affect our results. It will not cause a massive variation in our conclusion.   All hair samples must be taken from 16-18 year old females. 6 different samples must be taken for each colour of hair. Make sure all equipment is set up; ensuring the strand of hair is fastened to the shown equipment correctly. (Figure 5). * Each hair is tested five times, so I am repeating the experiment, to make my results reliable and more accurate. Results (My own (raw data) results will be highlighted in dark red on tables 2, 3, 4 5). (The letter B is used in my results to show where the hair broke). Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Analysing: (Skill C) Calculations Strength is determined by the amount of stress a hair can withstand without breaking. To work out the strength of each hair I calculated the stress applied to each when breaking. To do all the calculations I used the following formulas: 1  I calculated my values to do the statistical test. Discussion Melanin molecules are proteins, which are produced at the root of each hair. The more melanin in your hair, the darker it will get. An amino acid called tyrosine is converted into melanin so the hair will have colour. First, the bodys blood vessels carry tyrosine to the bottom of each hair follicle. Then, in this melanin factory tyrosine is used as the raw material for the production of the natural melanin that is the colour in hair. We will write a custom essay sample on The factors affecting tensile strength specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The factors affecting tensile strength specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The factors affecting tensile strength specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In short, natural hair colour depends upon the presence, amount and distribution of melanin, a natural pigment found in the cortex. All natural hair colours are created from two types of melanin. Eumelanin = black pigment Pheomelanin = red/yellow pigment Mixed melanins = when both eumelanin and pheomelanin mix together inside one melanin granule. The natural colour of the hair is decided by: a) What type of melanin is in the hair b) How much melanin is in the hair c) How closely packed or scattered the melanin is within the cortex. The type of melanin and the size of the granules determine whether hair will be brown, blonde, ginger or black. The amount of melanin and its distribution determine how dark or light the hair colour will be. Black hair is created from granules full of eumelanin densely packed in the hairs cortex. Brown hair, depending on its cool or warm tones and its darkness or lightness, is created either from granules filled with eumelanin and more sparsely distributed along the cortex than those of black hair, or granules filled with a blend of mixed melanins. The red/yellow pheomelanin is believed to cause the warm, golden, or auburn tones found in most brown hair. Blonde hair has a very low melanin content. And while scientists have not yet determined which is dominant, it is believed that eumelanin creates blonde hair. Melanin in blonde hair is so sparse that what we actually see is the colour of the hair fibre itself, keratin, which is a pale yellow, off-white shade. Granules filled with pheomelanin create Ginger hair. The pheomelanin in ginger hair is less densely packed in its granules. Its shape is somewhat more irregular than its black counterpart, eumelanin. It is slightly rounder and more spread out. From my results I found out that brown hair needed the greatest amount of force to break. Blonde hair needed the least amount of force to break. Black hair was second strongest and ginger hair was third strongest. The order of strength (from my results) of hair is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair stretched the most before breaking. Blonde hair stretched the least before breaking. Black hair stretched the second furthest and ginger hair stretched the third furthest. The order of length of hair stretched (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair experienced the highest strain before breaking and blonde hair experienced the lowest strain before breaking. The order of strain experienced by hair (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair experienced the highest tensile stress value before breaking and blonde experienced the lowest tensile stress value before breaking. The order of tensile stress experienced by hair (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Ginger, Black, and then Blonde. Graph 1 shows the average force required to break the four colours of hair. From this graph I can see that brown hair required the greatest force to break. Black hair also required a large amount of force to break and so did ginger hair. Black hair only required a small amount of more force to break then ginger hair. The breaking force required for brown, black and ginger hair was quite similar. Blonde hair required much less force to break compared to the other colours of hair. This proves that the disulphide bonds in the blonde hair are not a big advantage for strength of the hair. The darker the hair the stronger the force required for the bonds in the hair to break. The darker the hair the more resistant it is to breaking when forces are applied. The darker the hair the higher concentrations of melanin present along the hair cortex. The same sort of pattern is seen in graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5. Graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 show the extension of hair when masses are added. Blonde hair breaks the earliest and brown hair breaks the latest. Graph 2 shows brown hair. Brown hair requires about 120g to extend up to about 70mm before breaking. The graph follows a basic trend and there are no anomalous results. All results fit the line of best fit. Graph 3 shows blonde hair. Blonde hair requires about 80g to extend up to about 35mm before breaking. The graph follows the basic trend and most results fit the line of best fit. There is one anomaly, though. The extension should not increase and then decrease. It should keep on decreasing. There must have been an error in recording this result. The results in graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 are all averages. To work out the blonde values in table 32, the results in tables 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 were used. There was only one value for the extension at 80g, in table 15. This value was smaller than the average of all the extensions in all six tables. This sample of hair should have broken at 80g not 90g. This did not happen. This may have been an error in not measuring correctly. Graph 4 shows ginger hair. Ginger hair requires about 100g to extend up to about 60mm before breaking. The graph follows the basic trend until it gets to 55g point. From this point onwards the hair length increases and decreases dramatically. This should not happen. The reason why this happens is described above with the blonde hair. It is an error in measuring. Graph 5 shows black hair. Black hair requires about 140g to extend up to about 65mm before breaking. This graph is perfect. There are no anomalies. All points meet the line of best fit accurately. Graph 6 shows the average stresses and strains experienced by each hair colour. All four hair colours are plotted on the same graph so they can be easily compared against each other. Brown, blonde and ginger hairs do not follow the normal trend. The stresses and strains for these three should continue to increase. Tables 57, 58, 59 and 60 show where the stress and strain values came form. The results are like this because when the stress and strain values were calculated the average extensions were used, which had a few faults, as describe above. Graphs 7, 8, 9 and 10 show clearly what is happening to the stress-strain curves. Graph 7 shows one anomalous result. It has a high stress and strain value. Graph 8 also shows only one anomalous result. These two graphs show the basic trend. Graph 9 shows the normal trend until the stress value gets to 150Nm-2. Then it decreases and goes back on itself. This should not happen. The reason for this is explained above. There is an error in the extension averages. Graph 10 shows no anomalies. Graphs 11, 12, 13 and 14 show modified values for stress and strain in all colours of hair. Graph 11 shows the modified stresses and strains for brown hair. This graph does not bend backwards and the stress and strain values do not decrease. Graph 12 shows the modified stresses and strains for blonde hair. This graph does not show values of stress and strain decreasing. Graph 13 shows the modified stresses and strains for ginger hair. This graph has changed a lot. It reads much clearer. Stress and strain increases throughout. This is exactly what the graph should look like. Graph 14 is the same as graph 10. It did not need any modifications. The toughness of a hair is measured of its resistance to break. A lot of energy is required to break a tough material. Finally, the strength of a material (or tensile strength) is the greatest tensile stress it can undergo before breaking. Hair is an elastic material; it can stretch to a certain maximum point (elastic point) before breaking. The largest tensile stress that can be applied to a material before it breaks is known as its ultimate tensile stress (UTS). This value is sometimes referred to as the materials breaking stress. Graph 7 shows the stress-strain points for brown hair. Graph 11 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for brown hair is 359. 03. Graph 8 shows stress-strain points for blonde hair. Graph 12 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for blonde hair is 125. 48. Graph 9 shows the stress-strain for ginger hair. Graph 13 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for ginger hair is 286. 58. Graph 10 shows the stress-strain points for black hair. Graph 14 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for black hair is 158. 31. Overall I can see that brown hair was the strongest. This was not expected. I expected black hair to have the highest tensile strength, as it had a higher density of melanin along the cortex. Blonde hair turned out to be the one with the lowest tensile stress. Ginger haired people have a high density of the pheomelanin pigments in their hair fibre. Those who produce virtually no eumelanin have a red to orange colour depending on the density of the pigment in the hair fibre. Red haired people who have a greater relative proportion of eumelanin production have a deeper red to red brown colour. Ginger hair also should have a high tensile strength. This is what I saw in my results. Black hair should also have a high tensile strength. My results showed black hair to have high tensile strength but not the highest. There are other ways in which hair tensile strength could have been measured. Hair products like shampoos have an effect on hair tensile strength. They are now designed to change hair strengths. Different makes of hair shampoos could be used. Strength could be measured in a similar way to how I measured it. A control will be also be needed, with hair with no products added. These modifications in Graphs 11, 12, 13 and 14 show what the stress strain graphs should look like. In Graphs 7, 8, 9 and 10 the lines should not bend backwards. Statistical Test I will be using the (Chi squared test) X2. The formula for the Chi squared test is as follows: X2 = ? [(O E) 2 /E] O = Observed value E = Expected value The ((O E) 2) part of the formula considers the size of the difference between the observed and expected values. This difference could be either positive or negative. To avoid the mathematical problems associated with negative values, the difference is squared. The (E) part of the formula relates the size of the difference to the magnitude of the numbers involved. The sigma (? ) sum symbol is required because there is not just one pair of observed and expected values, but several (in this case four). By taking all the observed values of stress from tables 57, 58, 59 and 60, I can work out the expected value for each hair colour. I can then place these values in a table and work out the value for X2, using the chi squared formula. To calculate the degrees of freedom to be used can be found as follows: Number of categories minus 1. In this case: 4 1 = 3 The critical value (taken from critical values for the Chi squared test) at 3 degrees of freedom is 7. 81 (at the 5% level). The test statistic (X2 = 94. 235) is greater than the critical value(C. V = 7. 81, at the 5% significance level). We therefore can reject the null hypothesis and state there is a significant difference between the observed a Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Evaluating: (Skill D) Limitations The selotape holding hairs in the paperclip at the top and at the bottom could have interfered with the tertiary structure of the protein, keratin. This could have increased or decreased the bond attractions in the hair to cause the hair to have a high or low tensile stress. This would make my results unreliable. The hairs showing higher tensile stress may just be showing how sticky the selotape is and how strongly it is holding the hair structure together. This though, would affect all my results, as all hair samples had selotape on them to hold them together at the top and at the bottom. So, this limitation would affect all hairs making it a very weak limitation. My conclusion will not be affected as this limitation affects all hairs.   The time in between weights were added is another limitation. When each weight was added the hair stretched. But when there were a lot of weights on hair, the hair stretched quickly and then the length was measured. After I finished measuring the hair had slowly stretched a little bit more. So the measurement was wrong. When the next weight was added extra extension was added onto the new extension. My results were affected by this because some extensions were false making some data imprecise. Therefore, my conclusion will be invalid, because some hair samples could have broken at lower weights if I had waited for the hair to stretch, very slowly until it broke. There needed to be a time limit in which I had to record the extension of the hair, before adding the next weight to the hair. The eye piece graticule can be a limiting factor. Different people measured hair thickness and recorded it to what they felt the thickness ought to be according to the scale. It was not very clear to see how thick the hair was, as the hair was faded under the microscope at all magnifications and the outline was difficult to see. This could affect my results as the thickness of hairs was used to calculate the cross sectional area of the hairs, which was then used to calculate the tensile stress experienced by the hair. This could make my tensile stress values incorrect. My conclusion therefore could be affected; by making out that a certain coloured hair had a higher tensile stress than another coloured hair, when really it shouldnt have. This would make my conclusion unreliable.   There were different shades of hair colour, for example, there were light brown hair colours and dark brown hair colours. It was sometimes hard to distinguish between brown and blonde. This was the same for blonde hair. This would have an affect on the reliability and precision of my results making the accuracy of the strengths of different colours of colours of hair inaccurate. There should have been a certain shade of colour of hair (same amount of melanin in each brown hair) used for each colour sample. My conclusion will be imprecise because brown or blonde hair shades could cause incorrect results and make my conclusion incorrect.   The 10g mass is a limitation as the hair could break at lower masses than they actually did, for example a hair that broke at 50g could have broken at 41g, but I wouldnt know that as I only used 10g masses. So, I got false readings implying the hair is stronger than it actually is. If smaller masses were used my results would be much more accurate to make my conclusion reliable. This limitation could cause my conclusion to be invalid, causing the hairs strength and point on breaking higher or lower than it actually is. Conclusion After doing my statistical test I can reject my null hypothesis and accept my hypothesis and say that brown, blonde, ginger and black hairs differ in tensile strength. I have proved this difference in my calculations, mainly in graphs 1 and 6. From my results I can see that darker coloured has a higher tensile stress compared to lighter coloured hairs. In my hypothesis I said that lighter coloured hair would have a higher tensile strength than darker coloured hair, due to lighter coloured hair having sulphur-sulphide bonds, which are very strong. I have disproved this. Through testing all four colours of hair I can see that these strong sulphur bonds do not reflect any tensile strength qualities. Lighter coloured hair does not have an advantage over dark coloured hair when it comes to tensile strength. It mainly depends on the type of melanin the hair contains. The denser the melanin quantity is the stronger the hair.